A fossil-fueled town fights back

As coal continues to fade, Pueblo, Colorado, looks to renewables for a new economy.


The Comanche Power Generating station in Pueblo, Colorado, is the state’s largest coal-fired power plant, owned by Xcel Energy.

For nearly half a century, coal powered the blast furnaces of the 1,410-megawatt Comanche Power Generating station in Pueblo, a city of 110,000 in southern Colorado. You can’t miss Comanche, the state’s largest coal-fired power plant; it dominates the flat landscape for 40 miles in each direction, just as its plume of smoke dominates the sky.

That’s why residents shuddered in August 2017, when Xcel Energy announced that Comanche would shut down Comanche boilers 1 and 2, by 2025. Pueblo had already suffered through steel-mill layoffs and closures in the late 1970s and early 1980s, losing 8,000 of 9,000 jobs. This is a place that knows the pain of an industry cutting back. Yet what’s happening in Pueblo today offers some hope to other towns experiencing the death of a fossil-fueled economy.

That’s because a new industry has come on the scene in Pueblo. Vestas, a Danish windmill factory that employs some 900 people, makes tower bases for giant windmills. And business is booming: Wait time for a new Vestas windmill is five years, said Colorado Public Utilities Commissioner John Gavan.

“We’re gonna lose good jobs when Xcel shuts down those boilers, but our air will be cleaner.”

For Pueblo Mayor Nick Gradisar, who is focused on employment, Vestas’ existence helps to ease the pain of losing Comanche’s jobs. “We’re gonna lose good jobs when Xcel shuts down those boilers,” he said of Comanche’s coming closure, “but our air will be cleaner.”

What does it mean when two of three boilers sit idle? Each boiler devours trainloads of coal along with millions of gallons of water bought from the town, which makes good money on the deal. Comanche used to run flat out, with coal-powered steam spinning the turbines that make electricity, but the rise of renewables means coal plants power up intermittently. “Coal-fired plants are running at 54% these days … and plants are built to run at capacity,” reported Bloomberg.

Frank Hilliard, who helped build the plant’s third boiler, is a roll-your own cigarette-type guy who lives in Walsenburg, a busted coal mine town 50 miles south of Pueblo.

Hilliard says the remaining boiler at Comanche is young and powerful, shipping out 857 MW. But he fears it’s on the chopping block, too.

“We just built Comanche 3, and they want to shut the damn thing down,” he complained. He wishes that Xcel and the other big utilities didn’t hate coal. “Coal created damned good work,” he said, “and most jobs require college now.”

But hate isn’t the problem; it’s the market. Three hundred coal plants have closed in the past 10 years, representing half of U.S. coal generating capacity, reported the research firm S&P Global. 2019 was the second-biggest year ever for coal plant closures, and utilities are pushing early shutdowns for remaining coal plants.

To comply with Colorado’s 2040 goals of 100% carbon-free electricity, the smart money predicts that Comanche 3’s closure will happen sooner, perhaps much sooner.

When Hilliard worked on Comanche 3, it was one of the last coal turbines built in the country. He’s still proud of what he accomplished. “We built Comanche 3 with the plan that it would power Colorado until well after my kid died. These plants are really something. How can we just destroy them?”

It happened fast, this economic turn away from fossil fuels and toward renewables. Along with Vestas’ Windmills symbolizing a new economy, Xcel is building the state’s largest solar installation, a 240 MW solar farm, which will surround the 139 year-old Pueblo steel mill, now Russian owned. Mayor Gradisar says his Slovenian immigrant grandfather worked there for 50 years making steel using coal, yet he embraces the town’s new future. 

“Pueblo will be one of the first steel mills run on renewables,” he said, “and the Pueblo Mill is already the biggest recycler in Colorado, using nothing but scrap metal.”

Gradisar is counting on Pueblo’s grit: “This is a city built by immigrants,” he said. “The mill had 40 languages going – hard work is in Pueblo’s DNA.”

These days, Pueblo needs all the economic help it can get as it leads the state in all the wrong categories: mortality, crime and high school dropout rates. The rapid layoffs in the 1970s and 1980s slammed Pueblo on its back, and the town has never really recovered. 

Meanwhile Gradisar is banking on the new economy. “If the citizens approve, we’ll municipalize the electricity grid, and home-grown wind power will cut our electrical bills by 15%,” he said.

As for Hilliard, he continues to miss the good old days. “I don’t like change, but I’m not gonna fight it,” he said. “I’m too old and too broken-down to look for a new job. It’s time to move on.”

NOTE: This story has been updated to correct Gradisar’s quote about the percentage of electrical bill savings from home-grown wind power.  

David Marston is a contributor to WritersontheRange.org, a private nonprofit organization dedicated to lively discussion about the West. He lives in New York and Colorado. 
High Country News at [email protected] or submit a letter to the editor.

High Country News Classifieds
    Stellar seed-saving NGO is available to serious partner. Package must include financial support. Details: http://seeds.ojaidigital.net.
    Available for site conservator, property manager. View resume at http://skills.ojadigital.net.
    Starting Salary: Grade C, $19.00 to 24.00 per/hour Location: Albuquerque or Gallup, NM Status: Full-Time, Non-Exempt Benefit Eligible: Full Benefits Eligible per Personnel Policies Program...
    The Grand Canyon director, with the Grand Canyon manager, conservation director, and other staff, envisions, prioritizes, and implements strategies for the Grand Canyon Trust's work...
    Great Old Broads for Wilderness seeks a part-time Administrative Assistant to support the organization's general operations. This includes phone and email communications, office correspondence and...
    Built in 1901, The Crazy Mountain Inn has 11 guest rooms in a town-center building on 7 city lots (.58 acres). The inn and restaurant...
    by Edith Tarbescu. "One Will: Three Wives" is packed with a large array of interesting suspects, all of whom could be a murderer ... a...
    The Program Director will oversee the programmatic initiatives of The Salazar Center, working closely with the Center's Director and staff to engage the world's leading...
    Salary Range: $70,000-$80,000. Location: Denver, CO, Portland, OR, Seattle, WA, Missoula, MT or potentially elsewhere for the right person. Application Review: on a rolling basis....
    Position Description: Full-time seasonal positions (mid-March through October) Organizational Background: Colorado Canyons Association (CCA) is a 10 year old nonprofit organization fostering community stewardship of...
    Position Description: Part-time, year-round bookkeeping and administration position (12 - 16 hours/week) $16 - $18/hour DOE Organizational Background: Colorado Canyons Association (CCA) is a 10...
    San Isabel Land Protection Trust seeks a full-time Land Steward to manage and oversee its conservation easement monitoring and stewardship program for 42,437 acres in...
    Ventana Wilderness Alliance is seeking an experienced forward-facing public land conservation leader to serve as its Executive Director. The mission of the Ventana Wilderness Alliance...
    The Quivira Coalition (www.quiviracoaltion.org) is a Santa Fe-based nonprofit that builds resilience on arid working lands. We foster ecological, economic, and social health through education,...
    "We all love this place we call Montana. We believe that land and water and air are not ours to despoil, but ours to steward...
    The Development Director is responsible for organizing and launching a coherent set of development activities to build support for the Natural History Institute's programs and...
    Founded in 1936, the National Wildlife Federation (NWF or Federation) is America's largest and most trusted grassroots conservation organization with 53 state/territorial affiliates and more...
    The Cinnabar Foundation helps protect and conserve water, wildlife and wild lands in Montana and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem by supporting organizations and people who...
    Non-Profit Management Professional specializing in Transitional Leadership, Strategic Collaborations, Communications and Grant Management/Writing.
    Close to town but with a secluded feel, this eco-friendly home includes solar panels, a graywater reuse system, tankless hot water, solar tubes, and rainwater...