Why the country’s largest shellfish farm is struggling to hire and retain workers

And how it’s dealing with climate change and housing costs to make back-breaking work a little easier.

Shellfish farmers like Ramiro Cordero, who works for Taylor Shellfish Farms in Bay Center, Washington, are used to being in uncomfortable positions and places. Farmers kneel in the sand, elbow-deep in muck, to pluck oysters from the water. They hack away at mudflats to extract clams. They blow high-pressure hoses into the ground to uproot geoducks that can be as long as their arms, sometimes their torsos.

The job would be difficult anywhere, but it’s particularly taxing in Washington. Here, wintertime low tides — when shellfish are harvested — occur in the middle of the night. This means that farmers like Cordero are out at midnight, in the freezing cold, in January.


Ramiro Cordero, a shellfish farmer, drives his crew to a harvest site at Taylor Shellfish Farms in Bay Center, Washington.
The crew unloads old shells from the boat to prepare for a harvest.

Like many of the 600-plus workers at Taylor, the nation’s largest producer of farmed shellfish, Cordero started when he was young. The physicality of the job is part of why the company’s workforce leans youthful. But there’s also the appeal of working outdoors, in scenic coastal Washington, and for an industry known for its sustainability. Solid, if unspectacular, pay has been a pull, too: even entry-level jobs can reach far above minimum wage.

It used to be that the company could fill a job opening within a few weeks. Now, amid a remarkably tight labor market, that process can take four months. Taylor is struggling to find technicians to grow oyster larvae, as well as farmers like Cordero. Last summer, the company’s workforce was a third slimmer than it was four years ago. 

A crew of shellfish farmers harvests oysters in Bay Center, Washington.


Part of that is COVID-19. Taylor slashed its workforce when demand for shellfish fell. When it tried to re-hire workers, many didn’t come back: they left industry, or the region, or the workforce entirely. Shellfish farming, which has never appealed to everyone, now seems even less attractive. 

That may be because, in some respects, the job is getting harder. Summer is the busiest season for shellfish farming — and climate change is making summers hotter. In 2021, during a weeklong “heat dome,” temperatures in the region reached nearly 120 degrees, instead of the usual 70s and 80s. That impacted Taylor’s hatchery, in Quilcene, Washington, on the Puget Sound side of the Olympic Peninsula, where workers raise baby shellfish. 

Summer is the busiest season for shellfish farming — and climate change is making summers hotter. 

Gina Brown, a hatchery technician at Taylor Shellfish Farms, monitors an algae growth system at the hatchery in Quilcene, Washington.
Molly Johnson, hatchery manager at Taylor Shellfish Farms, picks up a tiny baby oyster.

During the heat dome, hatchery workers came in at 3 a.m. to protect the nascent shellfish — and themselves — from the worst of the heat. They moved the animals from warm, shallow water to deeper, colder water. They skipped maintenance, so that the shellfish wouldn’t be exposed to high temperatures. Despite their best efforts, some of the carefully curated algae that feed baby shellfish died. The extreme conditions also sparked a massive oyster die-off, both at farms and in the wild. At Taylor, workers put in extra hours to sort the dead oysters from the living. 

Given the unpredictable spawns, algae blooms, changing water pH levels — not to mention the heat — there is an overwhelming sense of precarity, even for Taylor, a company that’s more than a century old.

THE LIVING CONDITIONS of the workers are becoming more unstable, too.

Back in 2017, Trump administration officials exerted a significant immigration crackdown around Bay Center, where Cordero works. Dozens were arrested. The shellfish workforce, which skews heavily Latino, was hollowed out. Many left the region; some left the country entirely. 

Molly Johnson, hatchery manager at Taylor Shellfish Farms, speaks with nursery technicians.

Those who stayed are finding life increasingly difficult. During the pandemic, city dwellers flocked to Washington’s coast. In tiny Bay Center,a place that rented for $800 a month a few years back now goes for $1,200. Around Quilcene, the site of Taylor’s hatchery, houses that used to be rentals were sold. The rentals that do remain now go for $2,000 or $3,000 a month, not the $1,000 pre-pandemic price. One Taylor worker who lives in Port Townsend, a trendy town of about 10,000 people, pays $1,600 a month for a two-bedroom apartment.

The housing crunch has worsened the worker shortage, with applicants turning down jobs because they can’t find a place to live. “They look at the paycheck and they look at how much rent costs around here, and it’s really challenging,” said Molly Jackson, the Quilcene hatchery manager. One woman Jackson recently hired parked her RV at the hatchery for three months, until she found a more permanent place.  

Dylan Ramsey, nursery technician lead, walks past empty tanks that are typically used to house maturing shellfish at the hatchery in Quilcene, Washington.

Jackson now scrolls through Facebook and Craigslist and calls friends to help would-be employees find housing. Taylor even briefly considered buying land in Quilcene for employee-owned tiny houses. In part because of high housing costs, the company raised starting wages — rates now range from $16.50 to $27 an hour, depending on the position — on top of health and dental care and a 401k matching plan. 

Taylor is also changing how the work itself is done. It has turned some of the hatchery’s more onerous and time-consuming tasks — flipping screens that hold baby oysters in water tanks, for example — over to machines. The company sees mechanization as a win-win: a way to keep production up even with a significantly smaller workforce, while also making work easier for the remaining employees. Maybe, the company hopes, this will entice workers to stick around a bit longer. 


Left, bags of harvested oysters. Instead of growing oysters on the seafloor and harvesting them one by one, Taylor now plants them in bags. Right, a shellfish farmer throws harvested oysters onto a work boat.


That might be true of Ramiro Cordero. For most of his 25-year career, he harvested oysters one by one, straight from the water, a tiresome task that required long hours and repeated bending. Now, instead of growing oysters on the seafloor, Taylor plants them in bags. When the oysters are ready, a machine hoists them up, and workers pluck them from eye-level, no bending required.

The task is still outdoors, in the rain or sun, in increasingly extreme weather. But a harvest that used to take one week can now take just a few hours, and it’s far less backbreaking. Another Bay Center farmer, who had been considering retirement, now thinks he can hold on for another few years.

Shellfish farmers Jose Cruz, left, and Ramiro Cordero, right, harvest oysters.
“October, November, December, you’ll be wishing that you took that job at McDonald’s or Dairy Queen instead.” 

But he will retire eventually, as will Cordero. And it’s not yet clear whether Taylor’s higher wages or assistance finding housing will be enough to draw new employees. Although Taylor has hired nearly 100 new people in the last year, at Bay Center, there’s still a 40% vacancy rate.

Ricardo Morales, one of Cordero’s colleagues, said he doesn’t mind the long hours in the pouring rain, although he added that come “October, November, December, you’ll be wishing that you took that job at McDonald’s or Dairy Queen instead.” He loves working outside and doesn’t think he’ll ever leave the industry. Many of his friends and family have, though, pulled by $20 an hour starting wage in logging, or pushed by the immigration crackdowns. 

I asked Morales how the industry had changed in the decades he’s worked in it. He looked at the four men around him, standing in the middle of a large empty warehouse in Bay Center, and didn’t hesitate. “There are fewer people,” he said. “A lot of people have just left.”

Cordero stands on a work boat full of harvested oysters.

Mara Kardas-Nelson reports on inequality and the environment. She’s based in San Francisco, California. 

Jovelle Tamayo is visual journalist born in Olongapo City, Philippines, raised in Central New Jersey, and currently based in Seattle, Washington — on the traditional lands of the Coast Salish people. They contribute work to The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Guardian and other local and national publications. 

Note: We have updated this story to clarify that Taylor's planted oysters do not, in fact, hang off the sides of boats as we had originally written. 

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