Eucalyptus: Beauty or Beast?

Restoration pits these exotics against California natives. But for some, they’re a natural.

  • Eucalyptus trees reflect in the canal at the Sweet Springs Nature Preserve.

    Sean Arbabi/Seanarbabi.com
  • A great egret in a pond surrounded by Tasmanian blue gum at the Morro Coast Audubon Society Sweet Springs Nature Preserve.

    Thomas Nash
  • "Eucalyptus trees, oak trees, redwood trees, they're all trees, and trees are good. They are now part of our ecosystem and causing us to redefine the word 'native,'" says Joey Racano, a Los Osos environmental activist.

    Thomas Nash
  • A detail of the blue gum's colorful bark.

    Thomas Nash
  • "It's simply different values, and it's hard to say what's absolutely right and what's absolutely wrong," says David Chipping, California Native Plant Society president.

    Thomas Nash
  • Mature stand of blue gum eucalyptus in California's Presidio of San Francisco.

    Thomas Nash
  • The outward march of eucalyptus from a former plantation has occurred at the rate of about two feet a year. "And over the course of seven decades, that will take you somewhere," says Matt Ritter, botany professor, Cal Poly, standing by a giant old karri eucalyptus at the UC Santa Cruz Arboretum.

    Thomas Nash
  • Volunteers removing invasive veldt grass from native plantings area. Morro Coast Audubon Society Sweet Springs Nature Preserve.

    Thomas Nash
 

On a Saturday morning in early September, the Sweet Springs Nature Preserve in Los Osos, Calif., bustles with activity. To the east, a dozen or so volunteers struggle to stem the tide of veldt grass that laps at the feet of waist-high lupines. To the west, a great egret stalks the shallows of a small pond, and a few dog-walkers meander along a trail shaded by a lacy canopy of towering Tasmanian blue gums, a type of eucalyptus tree.

Invisible but no less real is the cultural fault line that runs through this preserve, which is managed by the Morro Coast Audubon Society. On one side stand those who would remove some of the blue gums to restore an embattled native ecosystem; on the other are those who believe these tall exotic trees have as much right to exist as the indigenous redwoods, California's official state tree.

As environmental clashes go, this one seems fairly minor, even inconsequential. At issue is the fate of perhaps a hundred blue gums out of the more than 450 that presently grow on the 32-acre preserve, whose springs feed the Morro Bay estuary. Yet the dispute affords insight into a much wider conflict that affects the entire California coast, one that springs from different visions of the natural world and the place of non-native species in it.

Strikingly, the combatants on both sides consider themselves environmentalists, so that beneath the fraught rhetoric lie concerns that are not easy to dismiss. Both seem to share a passionate love for nature, but disagree about which organisms deserve priority. The raptors that sometimes nest in the blue gums and the monarch butterflies that use them for winter shelter? Or the Morro blue butterfly and the myriad less charismatic creatures that thrive amid native grasses and wildflowers?

The trees are problematic for a number of reasons. They grow so fast that their branch structure often gets out of whack; left unmanaged, they tend to lose large limbs, posing a danger to people and property. They drop so much bark and leaf litter and commandeer so much water and light that only the most robust, shade-tolerant natives can grow alongside them. Blue gums can also be invasive. Given access to year-round moisture, they readily spread beyond where they were originally planted. At Sweet Springs, preserve manager Holly Sletteland regularly pulls out the blue gum "volunteers" that sprout amid native shrubs and perennials.

And that's not all. Eucalyptus stands can pose a serious fire danger, as became apparent in 1991 when blue gums burst into flames that lit up the Oakland Hills. While these non-native trees hardly bear all the blame – tinder-dry grasslands, native scrub and Monterey pines also contributed to the firestorm – the fuel load provided by eucalyptus debris unquestionably intensified the blaze. In the span of 72 hours, 25 people died, and well over 3,000 houses and apartments were destroyed.

Yet these same trees, with their shaggy bark and spicy fragrance, are beloved by many. In the blue gum's immigrant history, people see an experience that parallels their own, observes environmental historian Jared Farmer, author of Trees in Paradise: A California History. "There are still a significant number of Californians who are the first generation in the state. They have come to love California. They have come to think of it as home. And they feel this kinship with the eucalyptus. They say to themselves, 'This tree is not from here, but it's beautiful, and it seems to fit.' "

High Country News Classifieds
  • DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONS COORDINATOR
    Development & Operations Coordinator Terms: 1.0 FTE (full-time), Salary DOE ($45,000 - $55,000) Benefits: Paid Time Off (12-24 days/year depending on tenure), Paid Holidays (10/year),...
  • GUIDE TO WESTERN NATIONAL MONUMENTS
    NEW BOOK showcases 70 national monuments across the western United States. Use "Guide10" for 10% off at cmcpress.org
  • CARBON RANCH PLANNER
    The Quivira Coalition (www.quiviracoaltion.org) is a Santa Fe-based nonprofit that builds resilience on arid working lands. We foster ecological, economic, and social health through education,...
  • EDUCATION AND OUTREACH DIRECTOR
    Education and Outreach Program Director The Quivira Coalition (www.quiviracoaltion.org) is a Santa Fe-based nonprofit that builds resilience on arid working lands. We foster ecological, economic,...
  • WESTERN DIVISION DIRECTOR OF FIELD PROGRAMS
    DEADLINE TO APPLY: October 29, 2021 LOCATION FLEXIBLE (WESTERN HUB CITY PREFERRED) Overview The Land Trust Alliance is the voice of the land trust community....
  • COMMUNICATIONS AND OUTREACH ASSOCIATE
    Communications and Outreach Associate Position Opening: www.westernlaw.org/communications-outreach-associate ************************************************* Location: Western U.S., ideally in one of WELC's existing office locations (Santa Fe or Taos, NM, Helena,...
  • FREELANCE GRAPHIC DESIGNER & PROJECT COORDINATOR (REMOTE)
    High Country News (HCN) is seeking a contract Graphic Designer & Project Coordinator to design promotional, marketing and fund-raising assets and campaigns, and project-manage them...
  • FILM AND DIGITAL MEDIA: ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF INDIGENOUS MEDIA, CULTURAL SOVEREIGNTY AND DECOLONIZATION (INITIAL REVIEW 12.1.21)
    Film and Digital Media: Assistant Professor of Indigenous Media, Cultural Sovereignty and Decolonization (Initial Review 12.1.21) Position overview Position title: Assistant Professor - tenure-track Salary...
  • REAL ESTATE SPECIALIST
    To learn more about this position and to apply please go to the following URL.
  • ENVIRONMENTAL GEOPHYSICS
    "More Data, Less Digging" Find groundwater and reduce excavation costs!
  • RARE CHIRICAHUA RIPARIAN LAND FOR SALE
    40 acres: 110 miles from Tucson: native trees, grasses: birder's heaven::dark sky/ borders state lease & National forest/5100 ft/13-16 per annum rain
  • CENTRAL PARK CULTURAL RESOURCE SPECIALIST
    Agency: Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Salary Range: $5,203 - $7,996 Position Title: Central Park Cultural Resource Specialist Do you have a background in Archaeology...
  • STAFF ATTORNEY
    Come live and work in one of the most beautiful places in the world! As our Staff Attorney you will play a key role in...
  • ARIZONA GRAZING CLEARINGHOUSE
    Dedicated to preventing the ecological degradation caused by livestock grazing on Arizona's public lands, and exposing the government subsidies that support it.
  • OPERATIONS MANAGER
    Position Summary: Friends of the Inyo (friendsoftheinyo.org) is seeking a new Operations Manager. The Operations Manager position is a full-time permanent position that reports directly...
  • WATER RIGHTS BUREAU CHIEF
    Water Rights Bureau Chief, State of Montana, DNRC, Water Resources Division, Helena, MT Working to support and implement the Department's mission to help ensure that...
  • EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
    The Amargosa Conservancy (AC), a conservation nonprofit dedicated to standing up for water and biodiversity in the Death Valley region, seeks an executive director to...
  • DEVELOPMENT & OUTREACH ASSOCIATE
    Southeast Alaska Conservation Council is hiring! Who We Are: The Southeast Alaska Conservation Council (SEACC) is a small grassroots nonprofit based out of Juneau, Alaska,...
  • DESERT LANDS ORGANIZER
    Position Summary: Friends of the Inyo seeks a Desert Lands Organizer to assist with existing campaigns that will defend lands in the California desert, with...
  • IDAHO CONSERVATION LEAGUE
    Want to help preserve Idaho's land, water, and air for future generations? Idaho Conservation League currently has 3 open positions. We are looking for a...