Quest for darkness

“Your life can be changed by a firsthand connection with the night sky.”

  • The Milky Way illuminates sandstone cliffs in Arches National Park, Utah

    CINDY DURISCOE AND DAN DURISCOE, NPS
  • Chad Moore with camera atop Mount Washington in Great Basin National Park, Nevada

    CINDY DURISCOE AND DAN DURISCOE, NPS
 

"DON'T ACT LIKE BAIT," warns Chad Moore, only half-joking. As we hurry down a dark, quiet path toward the edge of Bryce Canyon, we're living on mountain lion time, and hoping the cats will grant us an uneventful evening. 

Moore, a pale, wiry 37-year-old, is a leader of the National Park Service Night Sky Team, and he's used to unusual hours. He and his colleagues travel to parks around the country, scaling peaks and rooftops to measure the depth of darkness. 

When Moore and I reach the edge of the canyon - using only small red flashlights for better night vision - the sky is powdered with stars, and darkness pools around us. The sculpted rim of the canyon, in south-central Utah, forms a high, cold ridge between the sparsely populated Colorado Plateau and the Great Basin, but the darkness here isn't complete. The small cities of Kanab and Cedar City throw pale domes of light on the horizon, and Page, Ariz., glares yellow in the distance. The sophisticated digital camera Moore carries, whose high-resolution photos form a detailed mosaic image of the sky, will confirm that this view is about 5 percent brighter than a perfectly dark sky. 

"When I got into this project, I had no idea of the extent to which light could be seen," says Moore. "I thought there would be lots of parks that were absolutely pristine, that our mission would be to take pictures of them before the darkness was degraded. But it's been really, really hard to find a park that doesn't have a trace of light pollution." 

MOORE GREW UP in Honolulu, where city lights obscured the night sky. In high school, when his parents gave him a telescope, he and his friends started to take stargazing trips outside the city. "By high school, we were having to go further and further out to find areas that were darker," he remembers. "We literally got to the edge of the island, and had no place left to go." 

The world has continued, in the words of Italian astronomer Pierantonio Cinzano, to "envelop itself in a luminous fog." Cinzano's 2001 atlas of artificial night sky brightness estimated that two-thirds of the U.S. population, and one-fifth of the world population, can no longer see the Milky Way with the naked eye. 

Years after leaving Hawaii, Moore was working as a physical scientist at Pinnacles National Monument in California, and he once again noticed the lights of nearby cities on the horizon. Darkness, he realized, was another park resource, like soils or water or air, that needed to be measured and protected for both wildlife and human visitors. Yet there was no formal Park Service program for darkness protection, and no one inside or outside the agency offered a practical way to monitor light pollution in the backcountry. So Moore made up some letterhead for the "Park Service Night Sky Team," and, with a team of one, launched a new park program.

A few months after this unofficial founding in 1999, Park Service scientist Dan Duriscoe made the team a reality, and seasonal staffers and volunteers later rounded out the crew. By 2004, thanks to a series of small internal grants, Moore and Duriscoe were working full-time on the Night Sky Team. With advice from professional astronomers, the pair experimented with methods of measuring darkness, spending several years developing a camera system that was precise, affordable, and light enough to lug into the backcountry. 

"We spent a lot of time with flashlights stuck between our teeth, trying to get things to work in the dark," says Moore. One setup included both an unwieldy telescope and a 35-pound set of lead-acid batteries, and Angie Richman, a Bryce Canyon ranger who works closely with the team, remembers that she once threatened to throw her heavy load over the edge of the canyon. "I thought she was serious," says Moore. "I was like, 'Please don't.' " 

BRYCE CANYON MAY BE IMPERFECTLY dark, but Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument surely ought to be the heart of darkness. To reach the interior of the monument, on the isolated Arizona Strip just north of the Grand Canyon, Moore and I jounce down 88 miles of dirt road, emerging - dusty and practically pureed - in a dead-quiet stand of ponderosa pines at the base of Mount Dellenbaugh. 

With their camera system perfected and pared down to a relatively manageable 50 pounds, Moore and the other team members have gauged darkness at 55 parks, ranging from Acadia National Park in Maine to Death Valley in Southern California. The team finds a place with a 360-degree view, waits for a cloudless night, and stays up until the wee hours as the camera slowly rotates on its tripod, feeding its series of images into a laptop computer. 

The resulting photos and measurements have inspired several parks to work with local governments on new and existing lighting ordinances - and to change their own lighting practices, replacing what some lighting specialists call "glare bombs" with shielded bulbs that shine only on the ground. Last April, Natural Bridges National Monument was the first "International Dark Sky Park" certified by the International Dark-Sky Association, thanks to the monument's isolation - the nearest town is 30 miles away, and only a handful of small burgs fall within a 75-mile radius - and revamped lighting system. 

In the late afternoon, Moore and I load our packs for the hike up Mount Dellenbaugh, a long-spined volcanic mountain topped with wobbly, outsized boulders. We reach the peak just before sunset, in time to see the mountain's shadow stretching across the juniper and sagebrush flats at the edge of the Grand Canyon. The peak log has only a few entries, including one from an enthusiastic wandering lichenologist and one from a previous visit of the Night Sky Team. As the sky gets darker, the air gets abruptly colder, and we bundle up as if for a ski trip. 

Isolated though it may be, even Parashant is no haven for the darkness. Above the western horizon, a string of planes line up to land in Las Vegas, 90 miles away. Moore points out constellations, but then turns to identifying the flying-saucer-shaped glow of Las Vegas, and the light domes of St. George, Mesquite, Page, and even Phoenix, almost 200 miles to the south. Together it makes the view from Mount Dellenbaugh about 14 percent brighter than the elusive pristine night sky - even brighter than the view from the edge of Bryce Canyon. 

IN SOME WAYS, DARKNESS IS A DIFFICULT thing to rally around - it's abstract and scary, often seen as a geeky concern best left to astronomers. But for many, stargazing is also a source of wonder, the stuff of intense childhood memories. Moore hopes his work, and the attention it's garnered, will not only supply data to the Park Service, but also inspire more direct experience of the dark. 

"A lot of people download a cool picture of some galaxy for their computer wallpaper, but that's a virtual experience," he says. "No one's life is changed by a picture they saw. Your life can be changed by a firsthand connection with the night sky." 

And despite the Night Sky Team's initial focus on the nation's darkest parks - Capitol Reef in Utah, Natural Bridges, some parts of Death Valley - Moore argues that darkness doesn't have to be perfect to be powerful. "Acadia isn't as dark as Bryce, but it's awesome," he says. "The camera might say it's a B-minus sky, but if people are moved by it, if they find joy in it, then it's equally important." 

While the camera atop Mount Dellenbaugh clicks and beeps its way around the horizon, my own wonder gradually gives way to exhaustion, and I curl up in a sleeping bag on the leeward side of a rock. When I wake up, Moore is red-eyed but grinning, thrilled to have had another night free of both clouds and cougars. "What a job!" he says. He clicks on his red flashlight, shoulders his camera gear, and leads the long, pre-dawn stumble down the mountain, intent on the next dark spot on the horizon. 

 The author is a High Country News contributing editor.

High Country News Classifieds
  • LAND ACQUISTIONS SPECIALIST - RENEWABLE ENERGY
    Energiekontor US seeks experienced local candidate, must reside in western South Dakota. Send resume and cover letter to: [email protected]
  • TRANSPORTATION PLANNER
    TRANSPORTATION PLANNER Exciting opportunity to lead the charge on meeting the future transportation demands of our community! This position will develop, coordinate, and implement the...
  • EARNED MEDIA MANAGER WITH WESTERN RESOURCE ADVOCATES
    Founded in 1989, Western Resource Advocates (WRA) is dedicated to protecting the Wests land, air, and water to ensure that vibrant communities exist in balance...
  • WILDLAND FIRE INSTRUCTOR
    Needed: instructor with 5 years *documented* instruction experience, current qualifications, M-410 or equivalent, and able to work as-needed for NM non-profit working with at-risk youth.
  • EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
    Seeking passionate full-time Executive to lead the oldest non-profit organization in Idaho. Must have knowledge of environmental issues, excellent organizational, verbal presentation and written skills,...
  • COLORADO PROGRAM MANAGER
    The National Parks Conservation Association, the leading non-profit conservation organization protecting Americas national parks, seeks a Program Manager for its Colorado Field Office located in...
  • CONSERVATION DIRECTOR
    Carbondale based public lands advocate, Wilderness Workshop, seeks a Conservation Director to help direct and shape the future of public land conservation on the West...
  • DEPUTY DIRECTOR FOR WATER PLANNING WITH WRA'S HEALTHY RIVERS PROGRAM
    Founded in 1989, Western Resource Advocates (WRA) is dedicated to protecting the Wests land, air, and water to ensure that vibrant communities exist in balance...
  • TROUT UNLIMITED BIGHORN RIVER BASIN PROJECT MANAGER
    The Bighorn River Basin Project Manager identifies and implements projects to improve streamflows, restore stream and riparian habitat, improve fish passage and rehabilitate or replace...
  • NON-PROFIT OPERATIONS MANAGER
    One of the most renowned community-based collaboratives in the country seeks full-time Operations Manager to oversee administrative, financial, fund development, and board development duties. BS/BA...
  • RUSTIC HORSE PROPERTY
    in NM. 23 acres, off the grid, rustic cabin, organic gardens, fruit trees, fenced, call 505-204-8432 evenings.
  • DIRECTOR OF VISITOR SERVICES & BOOKSTORE OPERATIONS
    The San Juan Mountains Association in Durango, CO is seeking a Director of Visitor Services & Bookstore Operations to lead our visitor information program &...
  • SOLAR POWERED HOME NEAR CAPITOL REEF NATIONAL PARK
    1800 sf home on 4.12 acres surrounded by Natl Forest and recreational opportunities in a beautiful area (Happy Valley) between Torrey and Boulder. [email protected], www.bouldermoutainreality/properties/grover/off-the-grid-in-happy-valley,...
  • 40 ACRE ORGANIC FARM
    potential fruit/hay with house, Hotchkiss, CO, Scott Ellis, 970-420-0472, [email protected]
  • LAND CONSERVATION DIRECTOR
    Manage, develop and implement all stewardship and land management plans and activities on both private and public lands. Guide and direct comprehensive planning efforts, provide...
  • INTERNET-BASED BUSINESS FOR SALE
    Dream of owning your own business, being your own boss, working from home ... this is the one. 928-380-6570, www.testshop.com. More info at https://bit.ly/2Kgi340.
  • EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
    If you are deeply committed to public service and would like to become part of our high performing, passionate and diverse team, NCAT is looking...
  • TRIPLEX .8 ACRE KANAB, UT
    Create a base in the center of Southern Utah's Grand Circle of National Parks. Multiple residential property with three established rental units and zoning latitude...
  • FORGE & FAB SHOP
    with home on one beautiful acre in Pocatello, ID. Blackrock Forge - retiring after 43 years! Fully equipped 5,500 sf shop including office, gallery and...
  • SMALL FARM AT THE BASE OF MOUNT SHASTA
    Certified organic fruit/berry/veggie/flower farm. Home, barns, garage, separate apt, more. Just under 2 ac, edge of town. Famously pure air and water. Skiing, mountaineering, bike,...