Evangelical Christians preach a green gospel

  • Dan Dancer

  • Peter Illyn and Three-fingered Dave

    Andy Illyn
  • Cover of Green Cross

  • Tim Stevens and Stan LeQuire at "Rescue God's Creatures" symposium

    Nicole Holt
  • Nicole Holt

    Tim Stevens
  • Theologians Calvin DeWitt and Maverick, a cougar, meet reporters

    Ron Edmonds/AP
  • illustration of Bible

    Diane Sylvain
 

TROUT LAKE, Wash. - -The Bible is clear about it," Peter Illyn is saying. "Over and over again, Scripture reveals that God commands us to be the stewards of creation. Now, that doesn't mean it's ours to use however we want to - it means that as Christians we are called to protect and preserve God's creation."

Illyn, 39, is meeting with the pastor and the elder board of the Mount Adams Baptist Church, which has 125 members. He's here doing outreach work for the Christian Society of the Green Cross, a national group of Bible-believing Christians, as Illyn puts it, based in Pennsylvania.

The elders listen politely, but their arms are crossed and their lips are pursed. Perhaps that isn't surprising.

This rural community on the White Salmon River about 75 miles northeast of Portland is suffering from job losses: Logging has been drastically reduced to protect spotted owls and development has been curtailed to protect the Columbia Gorge.

But "personal witness" is an essential part of evangelical practice, and that's what Illyn is doing. While Catholics, Jews and mainline Protestant groups have in recent years become more involved in environmental issues, survey after survey reveals that evangelicals as a group remain among the most environmentally conservative in the country.

Illyn was a Pentecostal minister at a Foursquare church in Portland when, in 1989, he went on sabbatical and spent four months hiking 1,000 miles of the Pacific Coast Trail with pack llamas.

"Out there in the woods," he tells the seven people around the table, "I studied my Bible. And throughout it, I found a plain message: Creation care, and the responsibility it entails, is part and parcel of our salvation."

Illyn searches for a way to express the conversion he experienced. He stammers, he pauses. His uncertainty, coupled with his conviction, draws his listeners forward. The room is hushed.

"I went into the woods a Pentecostal preacher," Illyn finally says, "and I saw the clearcuts, and I saw the pollution, and I saw the devastation, and I came home an evangelical environmentalist.

"I lined out those passages in here" - Illyn taps his finger on the brochure open before him, A Scriptural Call for Environmental Stewardship - "to carry the message to evangelicals that caring for creation is our scriptural and our moral duty." He uses the brochure, which lists nearly 50 biblical passages organized by topic, to prompt his points.

"For us in the evangelical environmental movement, the environment is a biblical matter. We believe that our abuse of creation is a sin," he says. Now the uncertainty and hesitation are gone. His bearded face, with its closely set, alert eyes, starts to bob with the rhythm of his sentences and he clearly wants to get up and pace the basement floor as if it were a pulpit.

"We say it's a moral issue, on a par with abortion. It is human arrogance, humans playing God, deciding that innocent creatures of His will live or die."

Illyn has given the elders a copy of the Evangelical Declaration for the Care of Creation, signed by some 400 nationally prominent evangelicals. He reads off names these folks might recognize. The last name he cites is Joseph Aldrich, president of the Multnomah School of the Bible in Portland, who is well known to evangelicals throughout the Northwest. This name carries weight around this table because he's a fellow evangelical Baptist.

For evangelicals, the authority of Scripture far outweighs institutional or hierarchical edicts, and familiar names mean that people who can be trusted have signed on.

Then Illyn solicits questions, and directly questions fill the room:

"What do you worship - God, or nature?"

"Why should we worry about the earth when the Bible says it'll all be destroyed in the end times, when God will make a new heaven and a new earth?"

"With families falling apart, community life failing, and kids on drugs, why should the environment be a priority for Christians, when the Bible, and particularly the New Testament, is mostly about people?"

He shows no signs of it, but Illyn has heard these questions over and over; his work carries him into three or four such meetings every week. Illyn is an environmentalist, but first and foremost he is an evangelical. He tells them that he shares their worries, then settles himself back in his chair and opens his Bible, searching the Scriptures for just the right quotations to answer them.

Illyn is part of one of those unexpected movements that periodically take Americans by surprise. Most Americans associate conservative Christians with the pro-life and "family values' movements.

But in evangelical circles the rediscovery of Bible-based "creation care," as they like to call it, has been going on for several years, and there is an increasing number of books, periodicals, and local and national groups spreading the message.

There's a large potential audience. One hundred million Americans identify themselves as "Bible-believing Christians," and a third to half of those believers call themselves evangelicals.

Recognizing the potential to tap into the Religious Right, nonprofit foundations with environmental interests have given generously to evangelical environmental groups. They're asking evangelicals like Illyn to expand the environmental movement by taking its message to the grassroots. Illyn and his cohorts frankly admit that thus far dialogue has been confined to the evangelical elite.

Last November, Illyn took a position as the Northwest regional director of Green Cross, a job funded by a grant from the Pew Charitable Trusts. His new ministry of establishing a grassroots evangelical environmental movement in the West is a departure from the evangelical tradition of recruiting souls to the Lord.

He's finding that most of his meetings end as this one in Trout Lake did, with handshakes all around, and tentative plans for further meetings, but little in the way of concrete commitments.

Farther east, in Bozeman, Mont., Tim Stevens is saying: "Colossians 1:16 says, "All things were created through Him and for Him." It's arrogance for us to think that we own this earth - no Christ-centered theology could legitimately claim that creation exists to satisfy our appetite for things.

"Our mandate, as Bible-believing Christians, is to defend the creation that God made and called good," he continues, "and if we don't do that, well, look at what Revelations 11:18 says about Judgment Day: "The time has come for destroying those who destroy the earth." "

Stevens, 29, is a native of the Chicago suburbs, who studied natural resource management at Colorado State University. Now he works as program staff for the Greater Yellowstone Coalition in Bozeman, Mont., and belongs to the Congregational Church in nearby Livingston. He has been involved with the evangelical environmental movement since the late 1980s.

Activists like Stevens are not merely recycle-and-tread-lightly, consumer-friendly environmentalists, and their model of Christian environmentalism owes little to the familiar image of Saint Francis with his birds. Instead, their environmentalism relies almost entirely on Scripture. But few in the environmental community these days, and even fewer evangelicals, think of the Bible as a book that supports ecological values. Evangelical environmentalists want to change that perception.

At the center of their work is an effort to redefine the biblical notion of dominion, which follows from Genesis 1:28: "... and God said to them ... "Have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth." "

In an influential 1967 essay in Science magazine, historian Lynn White Jr. blamed the environmental crisis on the way Christians tended to interpret this passage.

As Illyn says, "For too long, we allowed materialism to let us define dominion as taking anything we wanted. Now we are saying: There is no scriptural justification whatsoever for that attitude."

To the environmental evangelicals, dominion means, as Stevens puts it: "We are to act on God's behalf. It means that we are to mirror God's loving hand in creation, and follow the example of our master Jesus Christ, who had the ultimate human dominion, in dealing with creation. We are to attend to it as Christ did, with loving care and service."

They also point to the story of Noah. Stan LeQuire, who left a Baptist ministry to become director of the national Evangelical Environmental Network, says God's will is clearly demonstrated in Noah's story: "He wants us to save all the creatures, every slug and salamander. And so we say, let God decide which creatures shall survive. It is ours to help; it is not ours to decide. If creatures become extinct on our account, because of our greed or neglect, we're playing God, and that is blasphemy. That is sin."

The green movement seems to have sprung up in 1993, when several national and local groups were founded, yet it's long been a quiet strain of evangelism. Stevens, Illyn and others invariably mention the influence of Calvin DeWitt, who in 1979 in Mancelona, Mich., founded the AuSable Institute of Environmental Science, where scriptural lessons for creation care are offered alongside a variety of biology and ecology courses. They also mention Anthony Campolo, whose 1989 book, How to Love the Planet without Worshipping the Earth, remains influential.

Five years ago, DeWitt and Campolo helped establish the Evangelical Environmental Network in Pennsylvania. Today, the network coordinates the growing number of evangelical groups - providing churches with instructional ideas and materials. It represents the conservative Christian community in a national coalition called Religious Partnership for the Environment, which also includes Catholic, Jewish and mainline Protestant groups.

Evangelical environmentalists are now a more visible presence in the West than in any other region. Illyn explains: "Environmental issues are in the news and in our communities every day here in the West, to a degree that isn't true elsewhere in the country - and they risk dividing our people. The church needs to be addressing them."

So far, the secular environmental movement has embraced them. Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt's staff says he frequently phones network headquarters to learn of local evangelical groups that Babbitt might meet with.

Financial support has also emerged. Last June, the Pew Charitable Trusts gave the movement a two-year $350,000 grant; more recently, the Seattle-based Bullitt Foundation gave Green Cross the first grant it has ever awarded to a religious group.

In religious circles, though, there's a certain prickliness. "We're raising some hackles in the evangelical movement," LeQuire admits.

"Evangelicals tend to hear the word 'environmentalist' and just turn their heads," says 25-year-old Nicole Holt, a member of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Boulder, Colo. She oversees the Christian Environmental Association's campus program.

"They think it means liberal, pagan, New Age earth-worshippers," she says. Evangelical environmentalists say they are none of these. They say they worship the creator and not the creation, though they tend to capitalize both words.

The evangelical environmentalists support traditional family values and two-parent families. Most are Republicans, and nearly all oppose abortion.

"I am pro-life," says Stevens in Bozeman. But he wants to expand that term: "Completely pro-life, meaning all of life, before and after birth, and meaning I am pro-quality of life for all species."

So far, the evangelical environmentalists have focused on the Endangered Species Act. Stevens says, "There are plenty of human-centered reasons for saving endangered plants and animals. But to me, the most compelling argument is simple: We should save them because God created them. They exist for the glory of God."

In January of 1996, as Congress began reauthorization hearings, Evangelical Environmental Network leaders met with Babbitt and then held a press conference, where they cited scriptural passages to urge Congress to oppose any weakening of the act. That March, Stevens and Holt led a group of Bible college students to Capitol Hill for a day of lobbying under the banner: "Rescue God's Creatures."

All of this ruffled a few Republican feathers on Capitol Hill. The Network's press conference was widely reported in the national media, and shortly thereafter, House Resource Committee Chair Don Young, R-Alaska, and Richard Pombo, R-Calif., chair of the House Endangered Species Task Force, issued a joint statement suggesting that the evangelicals were a "front group" for President Clinton's re-election campaign.

The two representatives said, "Americans expect religious leaders to abide by a higher standard, and we are asking you to keep the debate honest and don't use the pulpit to mislead people."

The two representatives did not reply to the charge that weakening the Endangered Species Act is sinful.

Two months later, a grant from the Environmental Information Center enabled stories from "Rescue God's Creatures' to run in several small-town newspapers across the nation. Most mentioned a run-in between Montana Republican Sen. Conrad Burns and one of the lobbyists, 19-year-old Jamie Schmeling, a native of Miles City who is an environmental sciences major at Northwestern Bible College in Orange City, Iowa.

Schmeling says, "I am one of Sen. Burns' constituents, and he didn't care to hear what I had to say. Not at all. I don't want to shame him, but he was spiteful and persecuting."

She left Burns' office in tears, and Burns' media representative, Matt Raymond, was left to explain the senator's apparent outburst:

"This is the first time we've seen crossover between the religious movements and environmental movements. It's so new, it's hard to know how to respond."

Illyn says, "I think that many of those Republicans have long, long assumed that they have the evangelical community in their back pocket. What they heard last January and last March - and will go on hearing - took them entirely by surprise. We said to them, "the issue is not jobs vs. owls, it's greed vs. stewardship." "

The evangelical environmental community is likely to attract even more Republican ire this year. This month, Stevens and Holt are leading another group of students to Washington for the second "Rescue God's Creatures' lobbying effort, and in May the network will spell out its opposition to takings legislation.

LeQuire explains: "We're not opposed to private property, but we want to remind people that biblically, the rights of private-property owners cannot be put above those of God and the Creation. That's a form of idolatry."

Such successes and controversial positions will no doubt attract more media attention, and perhaps earn more funding from secular environmentalists. But there's no telling how much they'll sway the evangelical masses.

Consider the nature of American evangelicalism. Evangelicals take their cues from the Bible, but in a democratic way. They believe that everyone has an equal right to go before God, and to figure out the Bible's meaning for themselves. Therefore, most of them shy away from granting much leadership to human entities.

Pastors gain what authority they have from being appointed by a church congregation, rather than because of a divinity degree. Evangelical churches do not form the elaborate, top-down, corporate-style structures that characterize most mainline denominations.

Such a dispersed, grassroots structure doesn't allow for quick change, though Illyn says it does allow for the possibility of change. "Because there is no central evangelical office telling people what's OK or not OK to believe, evangelicals are more open to new ideas than the general public seems to think," he says. "There's a genuine grassroots quality to most every evangelical church.

"But we also tend to worry about being led astray," he continues. "And so there is an opening for charismatic and prominent national figures - like Jerry Falwell and Rush Limbaugh and the Christian Coalition leaders Pat Robertson and Ralph Reed - to use evangelical ideas to promote a particular political agenda." Illyn says these leaders have become established in the public mind as representing "the entire evangelical community."

In actuality, the evangelical community is diverse. Of the 30 to 50 million Americans who consider themselves evangelicals, only 1.7 million belong to the Christian Coalition. Several evangelicals have published numerous articles and several books trying to reclaim biblical teachings from the well-known right-wing Christians. But the Robertsons and Limbaughs are still in the forefront, and they don't welcome their green cohorts.

Limbaugh has said that "no environmentalist can be a Christian, and vice versa."

Evangelical Environmental Network leaders have tried to carry their message to Robertson and Reed and Focus on the Family leader James Dobson; all three refused to add their names to the Evangelical Declaration. Robertson and Reed are known to believe that the environmental movement is anti-business and anti-private property and therefore socialistic.

Are Robertson, Reed and Limbaugh reading from the same Bible as Illyn, Holt and Stevens? The latter and their allies believe that Limbaugh, et al, have hijacked the Bible.

Gordon Aeschliman, who lives in Colfax, Wash., and heads the Christian Environmental Association, says, "Evangelicals do believe they're following the Bible, and nothing else." But he says TV preachers sometimes dictate perceptions of what the Bible says.

Illyn maintains: "The Bible says much less about abortion and homosexuality than it does about caring for the planet. If there is opposition to what we're saying, it can't come from Bible-based opponents, because the Bible is clear. If we debate them, using the Bible, they have to say either we don't believe the Bible, or we have to change the way we live. So they're careful not to engage us."

It is true that few evangelicals seem willing to argue Scripture with the environmental evangelicals. One exception is Calvin Beisner, a 41-year-old professor of interdisciplinary studies at Covenant College in Lookout Mountain, Georgia.

According to Beisner, the evangelical environmentalists "neglect entirely the "Doctrine of the Curse." In Genesis 3:17, the Lord tells Adam, "Cursed is the ground because of you." That's the Doctrine of the Curse, and it means that God cursed all of creation," Beisner says. "So it's a fallacy to believe, as the evangelical environmentalists do, that nature untouched by the hand of man is pristine and pure. In fact, nature untouched by human hands is not as good as it can and should be."

It's hard to know how much of Beisner's opposition is theological. He says that the Industrial Revolution "liberated mankind from dependence on nature," and that it is through economic progress that we redeem ourselves. As he explains how our "cursed" creation will be redeemed, the talk turns from Scripture to the same sort of pro-business apologetic that evangelicals like Robertson, Reed and James Watt advocate.

"Bad theology and junk science" is the evangelical environmental community's reaction. But it is difficult to foresee how arguments from such influential figures will play out in the larger evangelical community.

Illyn remains hopeful that well-known evangelicals will come on board and bring with them their followers. He's heartened by the fact that in a Sunday Parade article last October, the dean of American evangelicals, Billy Graham, noted his own deep and increasing concern for the environment.

Illyn predicts, "I think you're going to see more and more significant evangelical leaders step forward on this issue. If we don't deal with environmental issues, and soon, billions of people could die - to say nothing of other species. Our community can't call itself "pro-life" if we're going to allow such a thing to happen."

Bill Cook strides across the parking lot of St. Andrews' Presbyterian Church in Portland. Tall and soft-spoken, with the steady pace of a fit man - at 41, he still surfs the cold waters of the Oregon coast - Cook is soon at the bank of the stream that skirts his church's property.

"Last year at this time this bank was a mess," he says. "Our church group picked up the trash and used machetés to clear the ivy and blackberry." Cook steps sidewise down the bank and crouches. "Now the native species are coming back. Here's a trillium' - he splays his finger beneath its leaves - -and over there, you can see Oregon grape."

An hour earlier, during the morning worship service, Cook, who is an elder, presented his pastor with a "Noah Congregation" certificate from the Evangelical Environmental Network, recognizing the church's past activities and signifying its willingness to take on even more challenging "creation care" missions.

A Noah Congregation commits itself to ongoing environmental action in four areas of church life. Members agree to hold occasional outdoor worship services and, periodically, to integrate earth stewardship teachings into their usual services; they agree to perform local acts of earth stewardship, such as stream restoration; they agree to make sacrifices, a kind of "environmental tithing' - for example, they might reduce their energy consumption by at least 10 percent; and they agree to an "earth discipleship" role, which would include sponsoring Bible studies.

Cook and his wife, Marty, are evangelicals with longstanding environmental convictions. In their 600-member church in the last few years they have led "eco-theology" Bible studies, and they have established an annual churchwide backpacking trip up Mount Hood, where the congregation holds its Sunday service beneath the mountain's summit.

The Cooks' congregation is a model that Illyn and network leaders aim to direct other churches toward. But it's likely to take some time.

One pastor told Illyn, "If my church has $10 to spend, I'll sure spend it on human souls and not on animals and plants." Another pastor, whose church property includes a sensitive watershed, rejected Illyn's suggestion that he establish it as a preserve: "I'd rather have a bigger parking lot."

This is the kind of thing Illyn hears again and again. But despite the discouragement, environmental evangelicals find plenty to feel hopeful about. Out of her Boulder, Colo., office, Nicole Holt carries the Christian Environmental Association's ideas to Bible colleges, sponsoring symposiums, conventions, workshops and chapel meetings.

Holt says, "The demand for what we are doing is overwhelming. I can barely keep up with it."

Again this June, Illyn will set up a booth at the Jesus Northwest gathering, an annual event held outside of Portland and attended last year by some 28,000 evangelicals. Last year, Illyn reports, "hundreds and hundreds of people stopped by each day, wanting to talk ... They've been quiet for a long time, but many of them privately have never believed in the "guns, private property and God" rhetoric they hear from so many of the bigger pulpits in the evangelical movement."

Illyn is also considering reaching out to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, using the Book of Mormon; and he's planning to carry his message to Promise Keepers gatherings this summer. "Promise Keepers has done a great job of convincing men to be good fathers and good husbands, because the Bible says so. It seems natural that they might add being a good steward to that."

But none of this promises grassroots activism. So both Illyn and the Cooks are trying out projects to involve lay people. Cook says, "For a while now, we've gone into churches with sermons and slide shows and speakers, and we've had very little response, really. But when we do a hands-on work project, people get directly involved close to home, and they get inspired. Then we have the opening to sit down with them at the end of the day and look at what the Bible has to say about caring for creation."

Illyn is working with biologists from the Gifford Pinchot National Forest in Washington, who want volunteers for various projects monitoring sensitive animal and plant species. He hopes to recruit evangelical congregations and home-school science classes to adopt these sensitive species and habitats and do the field monitoring. He's also working with the Forest Service at building a coalition of the Yakima tribe, secular environmentalists and evangelical groups to help the Yakimas restore 5,000 acres of huckleberry fields in the Columbia Gorge.

Such local projects reinforce local pride of place, and they connect that pride to a stewardship ethic that evangelicals are familiar with, carrying biblical instruction into the world - even if its application to the environment is new to them.

Illyn says, "I know that to those who think we're just passing through on this planet, doing time until we get to heaven, all this work might seem like polishing brass on a sinking ship. But the Bible tell us: "As you go, you are to make disciples out of men," and environmental stewardship clearly will do that. It is a biblical discipline - it is a discipleship."

Cook, at least, sees the movement as helping more than just evangelicals. "The Christian environmental movement has a chance to go places that other environmentalists might not be able to get to, and perhaps we can heal the culture wars of right and left, urban and rural, rancher and environmentalist."

To implement these ideas in the Northwest, where discord has been epidemic, in October 1995, Cook helped convene an "Ethics, Economics and Endangered Species' conference at Mount Hood. Bringing ministers from a variety of evangelical and mainline denominations together with loggers, salmon gillnetters, Forest Service employees, and secular environmentalists, the conference, Cook says, got these groups talking to one another with a new respect and restraint.

Some in the larger evangelical community are coming to see that they share much with environmentalists: Both oppose the consumer culture, both are willing to sacrifice for their beliefs, and both search for authenticity and wholeness.

Stevens cites the Chief Seattle speech - -The earth doesn't belong to the people, we belong to the earth' - so often quoted by environmentalists. "It's too bad that most of the environmental community doesn't know that those same teachings are in the Bible."

For now, though, outreach to environmentalists isn't a particular priority: "I'm not doing any altar calls when I speak to secular environmentalists," Illyn says. "My ministry is to make environmentalists out of Christians, not vice versa. But I do carry our message to secular environmental groups, and in the book of Isaiah the Bible says 'the words of God don't return a void.' "

But their chosen work - bringing on board more evangelical congregations - is likely to move slowly. Of the 1,000 churches who signed on in 1993 as Evangelical Environmental Network congregations, only 10 have taken the next, more difficult step and become Noah Congregations.

Nevertheless, the movement's leaders say they are undaunted. Cook believes that in time their message will lead many evangelicals to "rediscover what their faith is all about. Ecological issues," he says, "are already leading many evangelicals to redefine what it means to be human, what the purpose of people is, and that is very humbling, and it's very energizing."

It helps to view Illyn, Holt, Stevens and the Cooks as presiding over the oddest sort of tent revival. They have the opportunity to bear witness to evangelicals and to environmentalists - and to promote tolerance and acceptance all around - but it's clearly a weighty task. It portends a struggle for the soul of American evangelism. Some are saying that the future of the American environmental movement hinges on it.

"It's the work of the Lord," Stevens says, "and it'll happen in His own time." In his church, Stevens is seeing some of the fruits of that labor. For years, many evangelicals have claimed that Earth Day is a pagan corruption of Easter.

"Every Earth Day I see signs outside of our churches," Illyn says. - 'Worship God and not the earth," they say. But to those ministers I would say that that isn't true to Scripture; it's not one or the other. We worship God by caring for the earth. It cannot be otherwise." And this year on Earth Day Stevens' church held a special service, led by Stevens and Gail Heide, dean of the Montana Bible College, emphasizing the creation care message.

Buoyed by such progress, these pilgrims, these evangelical environmentalists, remain confident. They're conducting this movement like any revival meeting: trying to convert one soul at a time.

Illyn speaks of a community meeting in Washington state where he spoke out in favor of the Endangered Species Act. "And a logger there stood up and said to me: "Get your damn owls out of my damn trees." This man was a conservative, God-fearing, evangelical Christian, so I opened my Bible and read him some Scripture.

"And I closed the book, and I told him: "They're not my owls, and they're not your trees. The Bible says they're God's owls, and they're God's trees." . I said that, and he sat down quietly, and then we prayed together." n

Jeffery Smith lives in the coal country of Wright, Wyoming. His first book, Where the Roots Reach for Water: A Personal Natural History of Melancholia, is forthcoming from Farrar, Straus and Giroux's North Point Press.

The following sidebar articles accompany this feature story:

- Scriptures (quotes from Scripture about the environment)

- Evangelicals are coming to the (earth's) rescue

- Montana minister challenges a racist heresy

For more information, contact:

- Calvin Beisner at Covenant College in Lookout Mountain, Ga., 706/820-1560;

- The Christian Environmental Association's national headquarters and Target Earth magazine (free sample issue) at 1650 Zanker Road, Suite 150, San Jose, CA 95112-1129;

- Bill and Marty Cook and It's Not Easy Being Green ($10/year) at the Christian Environment Project, P.O. Box 80092, Portland, OR 97280;

- The Evangelical Environmental Network and Green Cross magazine ($25/year; $12 student/low-income) at 10 E. Lancaster Ave., Wynnewood, PA 19096, 610/645-9390;

- Nicole Holt, the Christian Environmental Association's Campus Director, at 2260 Baseline Road, Suite 100, Boulder, CO 80302, 303/786-9362 or [email protected];

- Peter Illyn at Christians for Environmental Stewardship/the Western office of the Christian Society of the Green Cross, at 6308 NE 88th Street, Vancouver, WA 98665, 360/573-4019;

- Tim Stevens at the Greater Yellowstone Coalition, P.O. Box 1874, Bozeman, MT 59715, 406/586-1593;

- EEN's bulletin board is at [email protected] and CEA's website is at www.targetearth.org.

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