In pothunter country, a small effort at healing

 

Two people are dead, and a lot of the living are furious. After an early-morning FBI raid last month in the Utah town of Blanding, which ended with 19 residents hauled in for trafficking in ancient artifacts, one of those indicted, a local doctor, sat in his Jeep and breathed in poisonous carbon monoxide. The second man used a gun to kill himself.

The raid in Blanding, Utah, was just the latest in a string of federal decisions that riled the locals. This spring, several hundred people rode up a riverbed to protest new BLM rules that would reduce access for ATVs. "Tea Party" protests against the federal government have been popular here in southeastern Utah, and every week, it seems, letters to the editor warn shooters that President Obama wants to rewrite the Second Amendment and take away their guns.

It's tough to watch positions hardening when there's a local project underway that would protect artifacts in a way that doesn't demonize the locals who dug them up. I moved to Utah last year, and recently watched archaeologists and students whisk powdery red earth from floors that Native Americans popularly known as Anasazi built 1,000 years ago. It wasn't what they were finding that intrigued me, though, it was the precedent they've been setting.

The developer who owns this land has decided not to bulldoze-and-build in favor of protecting 28 acres of cultural resources. And the nonprofit behind this dig is setting other precedents that might eventually take the edge off the locals-versus-outsiders debate. The founders of the Kanab Archaeology Project aim to build a museum that will create jobs and educate children about the need to respect these ancient sites, much as they're taught to respect pioneer Mormon settlements.

"Pot-hunting is something that's been handed down through generations -- that's just what you do," says John Jorgensen, co-chair of the Kanab Archaeology Project. While trafficking in antiquities conjures pictures of mobsters or even the occasional corrupt museum staffer, many of the people the FBI arrested were Blanding residents in their 60s and 70s -- people whose grandparents likely pocketed artifacts from public lands before a 1906 law outlawed the practice. Of course, what they did today -- if they're found guilty -- is illegal, but the problem has a historical context that should not be ignored.

Most pot hunters will tell you that they're motivated by the discovering of Anasazi remnants; not by profit. The Kanab Archaeology Project hopes it can convince these freelance collectors -- some of whom have collections that would "blow away the Smithsonian," according to one archaeologist -- to bring their finds to the museum. There, they'd be an asset to the town and the center of research.

"We'll have an amnesty program worked out so that law enforcement doesn't come back on them," says Bill Welsh, co-chair of the archaeology project. He hopes to build trust, so that locals will also share pioneer journals, which often discuss where and how artifacts were found.

For the same reasons I find the ancient Anasazi mind-boggling, thriving, as they did, in a landscape that even today is remote, dry and daunting, I admire the Mormon pioneers who settled here. Tough as rhinos, they built 19th and 20th century equivalents of Anasazi great houses and irrigation systems. If you think of it that way, and even if you're an ATV-loather like myself, you can respect where their descendents are coming from.

"By asking locals, ‘How would you feel if someone from New Jersey came in and took your pioneer heritage away?' maybe they can see how the tribes feel about these artifacts," Welsh says. 

I'd like to see an end to the stereotyping and the bickering. I lived in the former Yugoslavia for nine years before moving here, and it vexed me that the locals, who were all white, spoke the same language, ate the same foods and wore the same kind of slippers inside their houses, insisted that they were so fundamentally different that they had to go to war.

There shouldn't be a conflict in southern Utah, either. Whether we're locals, outsiders or Native Americans, we all love this land. Still, Welsh and Jorgensen say they have no illusions about how fast they can raise money to build their museum, or how quickly they can create their program to educate young people.

"It may take a generation or it may take several generations, to have different cultures recognize how close they are," Welsh says. "My children may not be part of it, but we're thinking about the future."

Beth Kampschror is a contributor to Writers on the Range, a service of High Country News (hcn.org). She is a freelance writer in Kanab, Utah.

Pothunting
Deb Krol
Deb Krol
Jul 31, 2009 11:36 AM
Hi, thanks for what was obviously a thoughtful commentary. However, even though it's a nonprofit digging up ceremonial artifacts, it's still not kosher by our Native standards to dig up artifacts for less than a very compelling reason [upcoming development is actually an acceptable reason for many tribes, provided it's done with respect and with tribal monitors nearby to supervise and retrieve the items that have ceremonial or spiritual connections, and especially burials]. These artifacts were left there for a reason, and educating children about why it's not good to dig them up is unfortunately still dishonoring these relics and the culture that left them there. Not to mention, when these items are gone from the earth, it's next to impossible for a tribe with cultural ties to the area to prove their ties--and thereby lose out on future efforts to protect cultural or spiritual sites, discovered artifacts or even human burials. You didn't mention if the nonprofit had tribal archaeological monitors, which is required in some states -- I don't honestly know if Utah is one of those states.

I'm glad that this museum will accept artifacts, now how about the process of repatriating the ceremonial or burial items back to the most likely descendants, who in this case would be either Puebloan peoples or some of the local Utah tribes like the Utes or Paiutes? Is there any mechanism in place to return these purloined items back to where they really belong?

Also, please note that Anasazi is not really the accepted name for ancestral peoples of the plateau any longer--the preferred term is ancestral. As in, Ancestral Pueblo, Ancestral O'odham, etc. At least it is here in Arizona, can't speak to other states.
Pothuntin'
Undead Abbey
Undead Abbey
Aug 14, 2009 11:56 AM
"These artifacts were left there for a reason, and educating children about why it's not good to dig them up is unfortunately still dishonoring these relics and the culture that left them there."

Am I missing something here? Do you mean to say, that educating people about cultural artifacts is dishonoring a culture? I won't get into the whole Idea of whether or not one is able to dishonor an artifact, But without clarification, I'll have to assume 1 of 2 things. Either the above statement is unclear or Deb is bats**t insane.
"preserve" it by developing it???
Crista Worthy
Crista Worthy
Jul 31, 2009 05:16 PM
The reality is that Southern Utah developer Milo McCowan purchased 270 acres here in 2005. He plans to build 700+ units, and he will preserve about 20 acres--that's less than 10%!! So now well over a thousand people will move in, using water and requiring other services, probably trampling things with their ATVs as well as their feet. Don't gloss this over as a great thing for archaeological preservation. It's not.
US government invasion
D Yazzie
D Yazzie
Aug 05, 2009 09:53 AM
All this has proven is that the Native people of North America have been screwed over once again. These lands were in fact a part of the Tribal Nations using the area but the US and State forces bullied their way onto the land to disrespect and eradicate evidence of Native occupancy.