The Forest Service battles placer mining with an obscure law

  • The North Fork Clearwater River, Idaho, where the Forest Service is fighting mining under a law that allows it to prioritize other uses.

    Linda Lantzy/

On a clear day last October in northern Idaho, Forest Service geologist Clint Hughes panned for gold on the North Fork Clearwater River. The area attracted gold prospectors in the 1860s, but these days, the river, which flows through a wild stretch of country near the Montana border, is popular with campers and anglers.

Hughes scooped up a bit of placer -- mineral-bearing gravel and sand -- from behind a boulder. With a swish of the pan, he washed away the mud and lighter sand, leaving only a few garnets.

The absence of gold flakes didn't surprise him, though. The day's panning confirmed that little gold is to be found on more than a dozen placer mining claims staked along a 30-mile stretch of the North Fork. These claims grant holders exclusive rights to any valuable minerals. But the Forest Service is now arguing that mining the claims isn't worth the impacts to the river.

The Forest Service's ability to deny mining proposals is severely limited by the 1872 General Mining Law, a frontier remnant that prioritizes mining above all other land uses. But another, little-known law gives it a straightforward way to prevent mining in at least a few locations. The Mining Claims Rights Restoration Act of 1955 lets the federal government challenge placer mining in locations that it once reserved as potential hydropower sites. And on the North Fork, the law is giving the Forest Service the upper hand. "We wouldn't be doing any of this (contesting placer mining) if it were under the regular old 1872 mining law," says Hughes.

The Department of Interior began reserving certain river-valley public lands for hydropower development in 1909, as dam building in the West was revving up. In these "power site withdrawals," mining was restricted. But in 1955, as dam-site exploration slowed, the Mining Claims Rights Restoration Act eased the restrictions, with a caveat: The Forest Service and Bureau of Land Management could reject placer mining if it would "substantially interfere with other uses" like recreation.

Although the law applies to more than 7 million acres of public land -- roughly three times the size of Yellowstone -- it hasn't come up often because placer mining techniques like panning are generally low-impact, and because relatively few claims fall in these sites. In California, with its abundant rivers once rich in gold, roughly 4 percent of mining claims are subject to the 1955 law; in dry Nevada, where big hardrock mining dominates, the law is practically unknown.

But in recent years, placer mining has become more popular, spurred by gold prices as high as $1,900 per ounce, and more controversial. To squeeze gold from streams, miners have turned to suction dredging, which uses motors to suck up riverbed sediments and wash out the gold, discharging the muddy water back into the stream. Miners say the practice does little harm, but studies suggest that it damages fish-spawning habitat. California banned suction dredging in 2009; Idaho restricts it on certain rivers.

The Forest Service and BLM can regulate placer mining by applying environmental laws piecemeal to protect habitat, water and cultural artifacts. But both agencies generally view the 1872 law as constraining their ability to restrict mining on public lands.

In the handful of cases involving potential hydropower sites, however, the agencies have argued under the 1955 law that timber harvest, fish habitat, even aesthetic value, outweigh mining -- and in most cases, they've won. In 2002, the Forest Service was able to prohibit all placer mining on a section of the Yellowstone River because the activity would interfere with rafting.

On the North Fork Clearwater, the scuffle started last June, when a few miners subdivided larger 160-acre claims and sold the parcels on eBay and other auction websites. River recreationists complained to the Forest Service when miners nailed signs to trees to stake out the subdivided claims, most of which were 10 or 20 acres. The agency called for a hearing, which was held in January before the Department of Interior Office of Hearings and Appeals, and argued that the miners would push out campers and anglers and harm critical habitat for bull trout, a threatened species. Larger-scale placer mining could destroy Native American artifacts in the riverbanks, the agency stated, and would hamper efforts to designate the North Fork as a Wild and Scenic River. Miners didn't defend 20 of the 36 claims; the ongoing legal sparring over the remaining 16 claims will end in the judge's decision sometime this summer.

Some would-be miners, like James Young, see the Forest Service's move as a federal land grab. He bought a claim on eBay with hopes of retiring to Idaho from Biloxi, Miss., and supplementing his income with suction dredging. At the OHA hearing in Idaho, he argued that Hughes underestimated the value of the gold and complained that the miners would receive no compensation if the Forest Service wins. Others have applauded the agency for taking a stand. Gary Macfarlane, ecosystem defense director with Friends of the Clearwater, says, "This is an example where I think the Forest Service is really looking out for the public interest."

chuck dunn
chuck dunn
Apr 30, 2013 05:14 PM
Miners and recreational people can easily co exist.I have a claim on the Merced River which is located in the Wild and scenic section..while i dredge many hikers and rafters stop and talk ..i always have extra pans for those who,want to try their luck.. "" Miners say the practice does little harm, but studies suggest that it damages fish-spawning habitat. California banned suction dredging in 2009; Idaho restricts it on certain rivers. ""
Please name and reference the studies,,
California banned dredging in all rivers allegedly to save the Co Hoe Salmon. The legislatures in both houses failed Geography ..Most California RIVERS NEVER REACH THE OCEAN..
Marshall Swearingen
Marshall Swearingen Subscriber
May 01, 2013 04:26 PM
Chuck, one scientific paper that provides a good overview of suction dredging studies is Harvey and Lisle (1998) "Effects of suction dredging on streams." (PDF at[…]/HarveyLisle%20Suction%20Dredging%20effects.pdf)
Gaythia R Weis
Gaythia R Weis Subscriber
May 09, 2013 04:42 AM
 California currently bans suction dredging, see the information given on the California Fish and Wildlife Website at the link below.

The Merced River is a tributary of the San Joaquin River, which after joining with the Sacramento River, drains into San Francisco Bay. The Merced river is the subject of a salmon restoration project:[…]%20Report%20June%202012.pdf

There are a few California rivers and streams that drain eastward into Nevada that do not reach the ocean. Notable among these is the Truckee River which drains Lake Tahoe and ends in Pyramid Lake.

California dredging information:

Page updated 4/08/2013
Legislative Status
"The legislature and Governor have enacted SB 1018. A part of this legislation applies to suction dredge mining.
The law requires the California Department of Fish and Wildlife to report to the legislature on suggested legislative changes and a fee structure, among other requirements. The previously established date of June 30, 2016 for the current moratorium on suction dredge mining to end has been removed from law. Suction dredging, including the method known as “booming”, is prohibited within 100 yards of any California river, stream or lake (Fish & G. Code, § 5653 subd. (d).)."

PDF files at the link above give the Fish and Wildlife statement to the legislature, including their final statement of reasons, and the Final Subsequent Environmental Impact Report (FSEIR)
Marshall Swearingen
Marshall Swearingen Subscriber
Jun 20, 2013 02:50 PM
Earlier this month, an administrative judge ruled in favor of the Forest Service. The judge's decision states: "The evidence has established that the claims do not contain sufficient gold values to warrant further exploration. But even if the claims could produce a profitable mine, full-scale placer mining would substantially interfere with other substantial recreational and cultural uses. Further the evidence established that the recreational and cultural uses have more importance on economic and cultural grounds than does placer mining (sic). Therefore, I conclude that the evidence justifies an order completely prohibiting placer mining on the land covered by the claims."
vince bandola
vince bandola
Jul 28, 2015 10:12 PM
#1 Merced river no further up then snelling is accessible to salmon, the river stops at Mcswain lake and theres a dam there but they hand spawn the salmon in snelling. The merced river goes from there all the way to yosemite, salmon can not access, so lets clear that up, most of merced river is already wild and scenic but there are still gold claims grand fathered in but very few and there used to be several areas for public dredging and we payed for access to them each day and the camp sites and gas in Mariposa and food, drinks ice etc. The EIR reports found no deleterious damage, the reason dredging was shut down is because a rider bill got put into the DFG budget at the last minute stating the state of california could not afford the dredging program thats how it got done, thats how things end up getting done, environmental groups LOBBY politicians with promisses of money if they'll do some dirty work for them. Whats being ignored here are human rights, laws set down by congress, there have always been regulations surrounding dredging that were fare and sound, we followed those regulations in rivers where salmon spawn, by the way theres very few people, theres plenty of creeks and streams we dredged in where we made nice deep pools for fish to thrive. I can guarantee I have never killed a fish, I have cleaned the river of mercury and lead. No what this is ALL ABOUT is environmentalists have found ways to lobby politicians, found ways to have other people rights removed by BS science and lies, many are now working in government agencys and just watch how everything goes to $hit, i always say environmentalism is a double edged swored, look at plastic bags, look at the light build now that have mercury in them so we can save a little energy, look at our forests that you wanted to save for the spotted owl which is now closer to extinction then ever and our wasted resources that burn up in enoromous forest fires because of the lack of logging. Nothing you people do is right, you think your saving something when all your doing is destroying. One of our biggest opponents The Sierra Fund is now dredging for gold in lake Combie, they say they're cleaning up the mercury but thats another lie they are after the gold, the dredge they're using is worthless also you people are all worthless garbage think you know whats best, no your all double edged swords........
Bob Smith
Bob Smith
Aug 13, 2016 08:59 PM
How long until camping, hiking, hunting, and fishing are eliminated? First from small areas, then from bigger areas. We already see this with road closings making huge areas inaccessible. We see it with prospecting and mining. We saw it with the timber industry. In accord with unratified treaties with the global criminals known as the United Nations, and by Marxist presidential executive orders, American lands are being removed from America's use of them. American's rights are being interfered with. The BLM should be forced by Congress to produce a map showing all the public lands, and all those which have been removed from mineral entry. Also, the 1872 mining law is not some insignificant remnant, and neither is the US Constitution, which by the logic expressed in the article, would be archaic and relevant, which underlies an attitude apparent. Further, some, if not many, of these dredging studies are bogus. There's at least one publicly funded researcher who fled the country when his research was discovered to be bogus and he was supposed to appear in court. It's also doubtful visits to the USFS administered lands have increased, except in some likely faked statistics, because the USFS is ADVERTISING trying to get people to come to the forest. The younger generations have been smaller in numbers and not as interested in fishing, hunting, hiking, camping, as much as older generations were. It would be interesting, too, to clandestinely do genomic testing of key individuals in these environmental organizations which have worked mightily hard to shut down US mining on US lands. ICMJ reported some time back about a Russian consortium of companies which have a 100 million dollar fund from which they bankroll some of these organizations. Russian companies don't give that kind of money to care about America's environment, they do it to shut down mineral mining competition, It is highly likely the former KGB had and its successor has agents within these industries, and faced with the possibility of exposure, the consortium fund was created to be an above-the-board influence. How else can the war against mining be explained? Mining only affects a tiny percentage of the surface of the US. The impetus against miners and mining is inordinate. Here the USFS abuses a law intended to protect areas for dams, which would have wiped out these lands, to shut down panners and dredgers, and it isn't about protecting fish. There ought to be a lawsuit against the USFS to turn over all communications for the last 22 or so years and see just what has been going on. And if the USFS and BLM won't let people use the lands, including for mining, well this takes a lot of their work away, doesn't it, so why are we keeping their staffs as large as they are? Especially after the computer age and its efficiencies.
Bob Smith
Bob Smith
Aug 13, 2016 08:59 PM
The USFS motto used to be "Wise Utilization and Conservation". Now it apparently is "Preservation", for the sake of America's competitors and a bunch of global bureaucrats, criminals, and meddlers. The USFS and the BLM maybe ought to be eliminated and replaced with a new agency, after a thorough house cleaning to remove globalist servants. These lands were supposed to have been turned over to the states a long time ago, and the cruddy deal states got for a little money in exchange isn't reportedly even being faithfully paid anymore.
Bob Smith
Bob Smith
Aug 13, 2016 09:05 PM
There are only 4 professions which produce anything material. Everything else is just a manipulation of their produce. These 4 professions are fishing, timbering, farming, and mining. People ought to wake up and wonder why are they all under attack in the US?
Bob Smith
Bob Smith
Aug 13, 2016 09:10 PM
President Nixon once fired a huge swath of federally employed scientists. Maybe its time for another round or two or three.