A new Apache homeland in New Mexico?

An Okie Apache fights his kin to build a casino and bring his people home.

  • Ancestral homelands of the Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apache bands in southwestern New Mexico, where the new Apache Homelands Indian Reservation shares an exit with the Akela Flats Trading Post.

    Jay Hemphill
  • Fort Sill Apache Chairman Jeff Haozous.

    Jay Hemphill
  • Geronimo, c. 1890, after his capture.

    Museum of the Native American
  • Apache lands in New Mexico and Arizona.

    Google Earth, source: Ives Goddard, Smithsonian Institution
  • Chiricahua prisoners of war, including Geronimo, third from right in the front row, in 1886.

    National Archives and Records Administration, 111-SC-82320
  • Fort Sill Apache Tribal Chairman Jeff Haozous displays an artist's rendering of the casino he's fighting to get approved for the Apache Homelands Indian Reservation in southwestern New Mexico.

    Jay Hemphill
  • A boarded-up motel in Luna County, New Mexico, where unemployment is at 20 percent and nearly a third of the population lives below the poverty line.

    Jay Hemphill
  • Joe Saenz says he is among 250 or so area residents who are descendants of the original Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apaches.

    Jay Hemphill
  • Gloria Beltran is among the local tribal members who oppose the casino.

    Jay Hemphill
  • Carlos Benavides is among the local tribal members who oppose the casino. "We love this land," Benavides says. "(Haozous) only looks at it as a potential source of revenue."

    Jay Hemphill
 

When you live in the heart of New Mexico's Gila Country, as I do, few experiences are more haunting than a visit to the Apache prisoner-of-war cemetery at Fort Sill, Okla., over 700 miles away.

The cemetery is located in a remote corner of the 70,000-acre base, home to 40,000 soldiers associated with the Army's Field Artillery School. The deciduous trees are thick and tall, the grass is lush, and nearby Beef Creek is much prettier than its soupy appellation might indicate. Absent the regular cannon fire and the 100-plus graves -- all carefully marked by Christian crosses -- it would make a nice picnic spot.

At the center, surrounded by towering hardwoods and topped by an eagle sculpted from stone, stands the cemetery's only actual monument. This is where the legendary Apache is buried: Goyahkla ("One Who Yawns"), whose nom de guerre, bestowed on him by Mexican soldiers, is still bellowed like a war cry by young boys cannonballing off the high dive. More recently, it was used to denote Operation Neptune Spear's ultimate goal: the death of Osama bin Laden. It's a name that has never lost its power: Geronimo.

His memorable -- some would say notorious -- place in history notwithstanding, Geronimo was never an actual chief. He was an "expedition leader," one step below war chief. Yet he was instrumental in waging a brutal guerrilla war against both the U.S. and Mexico for more than 40 years, and his daring exploits helped imprint the word "Apache" on the nation's psyche.

That war, of course, did not take place in rural Oklahoma. It unfolded far away in the territory of seven major linguistic groups and 30-plus tribes, bands and clans, difficult to differentiate but all clumsily classified as "Apachean." For 800 or so years, the Apaches roamed from southern Colorado to Texas to modern-day New Mexico and Arizona, as well as in the northern reaches of Chihuahua and Sonora.

Then came Manifest Destiny and its scorched-earth campaigns against the Native Americans. The Apache story did not end there, of course, though it lay half-hidden in legal and cultural purgatory for many years.

The descendants of the two bands with which Geronimo was affiliated, the Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apache -- which occupied territory in what is now southwest New Mexico and southeast Arizona -- are scattered hither and yon. They have no real center and no real reservation from which to maintain or re-establish the tattered remnants of their heritage, making them one of the most noteworthy orphaned tribes in the nation.

Now, though, almost out of the blue, the winds of resurrection are beginning to blow, rising at times to near-gale force. The Oklahoma-based Fort Sill Apache Tribe -- Geronimo's officially recognized successor -- is trying to regain a foothold in its original territory around Silver City, N.M. It's a gloriously rugged landscape, with abysses almost as deep as the Grand Canyon, ponderosa-covered plateaus, mountain ranges reaching nearly 11,000 feet, the fertile Gila, San Francisco and Mimbres river valleys and some of North America's highest concentrations of hot springs.

As righteous, and long-overdue, as this effort to correct a historic wrong may appear, it has stirred up a stunning amount of controversy -- not just between Geronimo's descendants and the state of New Mexico, but also between the Fort Sill Apaches and others whose ancestors also lie buried at the Oklahoma cemetery, and between Fort Sill and the several hundred folks around Silver City who claim they are every bit as much Chiricahua and Warm Springs Apache as Geronimo was.

The outcome will have direct ramifications on the highest-profile Native American repatriation effort in U.S. history.

That is, if the argumentative underpinnings of the entire issue are not unadulterated bunk, as many people in the Apache homelands will tell you.

Alexander Mensing
Alexander Mensing
Oct 21, 2013 06:06 PM
Thanks very much for this piece. What a sad history - doubly sad because it's so forgotten and unknown by so many of us, along with nearly all Native American history in the USA. It's good to know that there are possibilities for moving forward, that some still know the language, and that there are efforts (however controversial) at reconnecting with traditions.
Andrew Thorne
Andrew Thorne Subscriber
Oct 22, 2013 09:50 PM
Fayhee states, "They were put on trains at Fort Bowie, Ariz". I believe this may be in error. My [admittedly brief] research suggests Fort Bowie was not serviced by rail. I suspect Geronimo and his people were loaded on wagons and then transported by "wagon train" as captives to their next destination.
Jonathan Thompson
Jonathan Thompson Subscriber
Oct 23, 2013 08:14 AM
Andrew: You're correct that Fort Bowie, itself, did not have rail service. But the tracks did -- and still do -- pass through the town of Bowie, about 14 miles away. This is where they most likely boarded the actual train. Thanks for keeping us on our toes!
Jonathan Thompson, Senior Editor
Mike Mendivil
Mike Mendivil
Aug 17, 2014 12:24 AM
It is interesting reading the current issues involving the Apache ancestors. I stubbled across a biography of Geronimo written in 1905 in which Geronimo was interviewed. His story might help clear up some of the origins of the 6 Apache Tribes prior to the U.S involvement in the territory. Here is the link: http://nativeamerican.lostsoulsgenealogy.com/[…]/geronimo.htm