extirpated from the Southwestern U.S. by private, state and
government control campaigns.
1976 Mexican wolf listed as endangered under the
Endangered Species Act.
1977-1980 Five wolves captured in
Mexico to establish a captive breeding program.
1982 Mexican Wolf Recovery Plan
completed, with a goal of maintaining a captive breeding program
and re-establishing 100 wolves within their historic range.
1990 Wolf Action Group
files suit against U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service alleging failure
to implement the Mexican Wolf Recovery Plan.
Fish and Wildlife Service releases the first Mexican wolves into
the wild in the Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area.
Mexico Cattle Growers Association, et al, file suit against U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service, alleging violations of National
Environmental Policy Act, Endangered Species Act, and
Administrative Procedures Act in authorizing and implementing the
Mexican wolf reintroduction project.
wolves translocated into the Gila Wilderness in New Mexico.
2001 Pursuant to the Final Rule, U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service completes the 3-Year Review. Scientists recommend program
should continue but with modifications.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to conduct an independent review of
the 3-Year Review. The independent review determines the need to
restore the states' role in the Mexican wolf recovery program; U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service begins to restructure the Mexican wolf
program with the help of states and tribes.
Coalition of Arizona and New
Mexico Counties, et al, file a 60-day Notice of Intent for
violations of NEPA, ESA and APA, alleging Mexican wolves are
hybridizing with domestic dogs.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service discovers a hybrid litter of Mexican wolves; pups
San Carlos Apache Tribe passes resolution to
remove all Mexican wolves from the Reservation.
Coalition of Arizona and New
Mexico Counties, et al, files suit regarding the 2002 Notice of
Intent, alleging the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: 1) failed to
consider the impacts of hybridization; 2) failed to prepare a
supplemental EIS; and 3) violated FOIA by improperly withholding
documents. San Carlos Apache Tribe enters into a cooperative
agreement with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for wolf monitoring
and management, including removal.
Defenders of Wildlife,
et al, files suit against U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service regarding
the Gray Wolf Reclassification Rule.
Twelve wolves are
killed in the Mexican wolf recovery area, seven by illegal
The first release of a pack of Mexican wolves
occurs on White Mountain Apache tribal land.
New Mexico Game Commission asks
state Game and Fish Department to re-evaluate management of wolves,
and to allow direct releases into New Mexico.
Courts rule in favor of U.S. Fish
and Wildlife Service regarding the Arizona and New Mexico Coalition
of Counties, et al, hybrid lawsuit; lawsuit dismissed.
Arizona and New Mexico Coalition of Counties, et al, file for
appeal regarding the hybrid lawsuit.
The AMOC completes
the Mexican Wolf Blue Range Reintroduction Project 5-Year
Review. Included are a set of 37 recommendations for
improving management of the project, many of which would require a
change to the Final Rule.
USFWS sets out to capture members of the Hon Dah pack,
which had chowed down on seven cattle. Ten of the wolves die in
USFWS shoots two members of the Nantac pack
because they killed four cows.
USFWS initiates a "Wolf Harassment Program" that allows
certain people in wolf country to shoot wolves with paintballs in
order to "reinforce their natural fear of humans."
shoots alpha female of Durango pack after it gets its third strike
- or kills its third cow. A Catron County rancher admits to
High Country News that he enticed the wolf into
the third strike by branding cattle near a known wolf den.
The Aspen Pack, including three pups, is removed from the
wild because its members have been killing livestock. The pups may
ultimately be re-released in the recovery area.
remainder of the Durango pack vanishes. As of press time, the USFWS
had failed to detect any radio signals from its