Imperfect Pasture: A Century of Change at the National Elk Refuge in Jackson Hole, Wyoming
Bruce Smith, Eric Cole and David Dobkin
156 pages, softcover: $14.95
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Grand Teton Natural History Association, 2004.

The National Elk Refuge near Jackson, Wyo., is either a conservation success, or, as the scientist-authors of Imperfect Pasture call it, the climax of "a history of excess." Thousands of elk and hundreds of bison spend winters on the 25,000-acre refuge. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service supports the herds with hay pellets, which keeps the herds out of ranchers’ fields. But the crowding hammers native willows, aspen and beaver.