At the same time that Inglewood was fighting off Wal-Mart’s assault, the United Food and Commercial Workers union staged the longest grocery store strike in U.S. history.
The strike was triggered when traditional grocery chains
decided to prepare for the Supercenter invasion by cutting labor
costs — slashing health benefits and possibly wages —
in order to compete. A study commissioned by Wal-Mart itself found
that the hourly wages of Supercenter employees in Southern
California are $2.50 to $3.50 lower than the wages paid by
unionized grocery chains. Other studies indicate the difference in
wages is actually much greater.
Some 60,000 workers for
the chains Ralph’s, Albertsons, Vons and Pavilions began the
strike in Southern California in October. They were joined by
another 10,000 workers from other stores, and many stood on picket
lines six days a week for nearly five months. It was a brutal
strike that cost millions in lost wages, and resulted in broken
marriages, lost homes and cars, and even suicides. The workers and
the chains reached an agreement in late February.
Maynard, spokeswoman for the UFCW’s Local 770, which
represents greater Los Angeles, is optimistic about the settlement,
saying that most unionized workers avoided losing health benefits
and pensions, and hung onto their relatively high wages.
"We were just treading water," she says.
But many union
members remain unhappy. The settlement instituted a two-tier pay
scale, for example: Most experienced cashiers, clerks and other
employees will continue to earn their pre-strike wages, but new
hires and newly promoted employees will top off at a lower wage.
New cashiers, who could have earned as much as $17.90 an hour under
the old contract, will only be able to earn $15.10. For clerks, the
difference is $12.17 to $11.05; for meatcutters, $19.18 to $16.35.
"Clearly, it was concessionary bargaining," admits Ralph
Franklin, an Inglewood city councilman and UFCW vice president, who
provided 33 picket lines with food, water and other assistance.
Acknowledging the millions lost by workers and grocers, Franklin
says, "This was a no-win strike for either side."
despite the settlement, some workers have had their wages and
benefits slashed. Workers like Anita Bowens, a cashier at a Ralphs
in Inglewood for 32 years, also lost some retirement benefits and
death benefits, which pay for funerals and other necessities.
"I sat here and read what they offered. And I cried,"
says Bowens. "It was the same contract (that triggered the strike),
under a different name."
Elionai Padilla, who stood on a
picket line six days a week, says that when he went back to work as
a clerk at a Vons supermarket in L.A., his wages were dropped from
$17.65 an hour to $12.35 an hour, and his hours cut from 35 to 24
per week. He has to pay for part of his health coverage, which used
to be free; he uses it at least once or twice a week to combat his
wife’s asthma. But still, he says of the strike, "If we
don’t do it today, tomorrow will be worse. If I had to do it
again, I would do it."
Maynard doesn’t blame
Wal-Mart directly. She says the grocery chains’ demands were
driven by analysts and stockholders, who wanted to match
Wal-Mart’s profit margins. Grocers, she says, simply used
Wal-Mart as an excuse to cut their costs. But she adds, "Through
the strike, people became more aware of what it means to shop at
Wal-Mart. Suddenly, people believed in their hearts and souls that
it was worth fighting."